One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action. Definitions of law often raise the question of the extent to which law incorporates morality. John Austin’s utilitarian answer was that law is “commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience”.
- There is also the continuing failure of law enforcement to control illegal harvesting, under-reporting and smuggling of the timber.
- It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church , the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.
- European Union law is the first and so far the only example of a supranational law, i.e. an